... hg H originated in the Near and Middle East ...
A number of subclades of hg H reach their highest frequency among the western Caucasus populations (Figs. 1, 3). The most frequent of them is H5*, which forms over 20% of hg H gene pool in Karatchaians-Balkarians and Georgians – in people living in the immediate vicinity of the two sides of the High Caucasus. These numbers are considerably higher from the estimates in Europe or Central Asia, which vary from a total absence in Volga-Uralic Finno-Ugrians and Central Asian populations to 8% in Slovaks and French (Loogväli et al.2004). At the same time its subcluster, H5a, which represented 10% of hg H mtDNAs in the Balkans, is present in the Caucasus and the Near Eastern populations at a very low frequency.
The peopling of Europe by AMH probably started more than 40,000 YBP (Mellars 2006),with the first evidence in the Lower Danube Basin (Churchill and Smith 2000, Conard andBolus 2003), suggesting the Near East - Anatolia as a likely route for these pioneer hunter-gatherers to Europe. The present-day variation of hg H suggests that this mtDNA clade aroseoutside Europe before the LGM.
It is likely that the subclades of hg H that are common today, some of which beingassociated with post-LGM re-occupation, were already frequent before the LGM, decreasingthe probability of their extinction.
A global climate model, based on solar output, has revealed that a significant warming of Earth climate occurred between 33,000 to 26,000 YBP (Perry and Hsu 2000). Independently, more humid conditions in the Near East and Greece before the LGM (31,000-25,000 YBP) have been deduced from geological and pollen data analysis. These estimates overlap with the coalescence dates calculated here for the oldest subclades of hg H. We assume, therefore, that the first expansion wave of hg H may have taken place during this favorable timeframe, probably in the northern part of the Near East and the southern Caucasus, where the oldest clades of hg H appear to be more diverse until now. It has been shown that the Upper Paleolithic archaeological culture was present in the South Caucasus more than 30,000 YBP, well before the LGM (Adler et al. 2006), giving support for our estimates of past population expansions in this region.
... it appears that after the initial migration of the carriers of hg H into Europe, presumably already before or during the Gravettian period, there was little subsequent admixture of the West Asian and European hg H lineages.
As for Europe, a number of frequency/diversity clines in the Near East and the Caucasuscould be associated with the postglacial population expansion phase. This can be partiallyascribed, as in Europe, to the (re)colonization of areas which were unsuitable for humanoccupation during the LGM due to aridity and lower temperatures.
Глушак (Брянськ.) Ковальов Федосенко mt H5a (Могилевськ.)
Оглотков I2a2b (Горбат. п. НГГ) Алькін Душин Жарков Кульдішов mt U5a1 Баландін (Симб. губ.)
Клишкін R1a1a Власенко Сакунов Кучерявенко (Глухів)
Кириченко Бондаренко Білоус Страшний mt T2a1 (Новомоск. Дніпроп.)
#генеалогия #генеалогія #пошукпредків #поискпредков #ahnenforschung #ukrainianancestry #родовід #родословная