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mtH / міто-гаплогрупа H / мито-гаплогруппа H

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mtH / міто-гаплогрупа H / мито-гаплогруппа H

Повідомлення kbg_dnepr » 23 лютого 2021, 11:22

More than a third of the European pool of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is fragmented into a number of subclades of haplogroup (hg) H, the most frequent hg throughout western Eurasia.
While there has been considerable recent progress in studying mitochondrial genome variation in Europe at the complete sequence resolution, little data of comparable resolution is so far available for regions like the Caucasus and the Near and Middle East – areas where most of European genetic lineages, including hg H, have likely emerged. This gap in our knowledge causes a serious hindrance for progress in understanding the demographic pre-history of Europe and western Eurasia in general.
Here we describe the phylogeography of hg H in the populations of the Near East and the Caucasus. We have analyzed 545 samples of hg H at high resolution, including 15 novel complete mtDNA sequences.
As in Europe, most of the present-day Near Eastern – Caucasus area variants of hgH started to expand after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and presumably before the Holocene. Yet importantly, several hg H sub-clades in Near East and Southern Caucasus region coalesce to the pre-LGM period. Furthermore, irrespective of their common origin, significant differences between the distribution of hg H sub-hgs in Europe and in the Near East and South Caucasus imply limited post-LGM maternal gene flow between these regions. In a contrast, the North Caucasus mitochondrial gene pool has received an influx of hg H variants, arriving from the Pontocaspian/East European area.
https://www.academia.edu/3844144/Origin_and_Expansion_of_Haplogroup_H_the_Dominant_Human_Mitochondrial_DNA_Lineage_in_West_Eurasia_The_Near_Eastern_and_Caucasian_Perspective?email_work_card=view-paper
Востаннє редагувалось kbg_dnepr в 24 лютого 2021, 08:29, всього редагувалось 1 раз.
Катерина
Глушак (Брянськ.) Ковальов Федосенко mt H5a (Могилевськ.)
Оглотков I2a2b (Горбат. п. НГГ) Алькін Душин Жарков Кульдішов mt U5a1 Баландін (Симб. губ.)
Клишкін R1a1a Власенко Сакунов Кучерявенко (Глухів)
Кириченко Бондаренко Білоус Страшний mt T2a1 (Новомоск. Дніпроп.)
#генеалогия #генеалогія #пошукпредків #поискпредков #ahnenforschung #ukrainianancestry #родовід #родословная

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Re: mtH / міто-гаплогрупа H / мито-гаплогруппа H

Повідомлення kbg_dnepr » 24 лютого 2021, 08:24

Продовження

The Levantine part of the Near East was the area which was colonized foremost, though likely only episodically, about 100,000 YBP (years before present) (Shea 2003). Based ongenetic data it has been suggested that the earliest phase of the long-lasting settlement of Eurasia by AMH (Anatomically Modern Human) started 60,000-70,000 YBP and proceeded alongside the southern coast of the super-continent, probably crossing first the Red Sea around Bab-el-Mandeb, continuing to India and further East (Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi and Piazza 1994, Lahr and Foley 1994,Quintana-Murci et al. 1999, Kivisild et al. 2003a, Forster 2004, Kivisild et al. 2004, Metspaluet al. 2004, Macaulay et al. 2005, Thangaraj et al. 2005, Sun et al. 2006). According to the newest interpretation of the C14 calibration data, Europe was populated around 41,000-46,000 YBP, likely after some hiatus since the “opening” of the southern route (Mellars2006).
Катерина
Глушак (Брянськ.) Ковальов Федосенко mt H5a (Могилевськ.)
Оглотков I2a2b (Горбат. п. НГГ) Алькін Душин Жарков Кульдішов mt U5a1 Баландін (Симб. губ.)
Клишкін R1a1a Власенко Сакунов Кучерявенко (Глухів)
Кириченко Бондаренко Білоус Страшний mt T2a1 (Новомоск. Дніпроп.)
#генеалогия #генеалогія #пошукпредків #поискпредков #ahnenforschung #ukrainianancestry #родовід #родословная

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З нами з: 14 січня 2021, 15:44
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Re: mtH / міто-гаплогрупа H / мито-гаплогруппа H

Повідомлення kbg_dnepr » 25 лютого 2021, 07:53

Продовження

... hg H originated in the Near and Middle East ...

A number of subclades of hg H reach their highest frequency among the western Caucasus populations (Figs. 1, 3). The most frequent of them is H5*, which forms over 20% of hg H gene pool in Karatchaians-Balkarians and Georgians – in people living in the immediate vicinity of the two sides of the High Caucasus. These numbers are considerably higher from the estimates in Europe or Central Asia, which vary from a total absence in Volga-Uralic Finno-Ugrians and Central Asian populations to 8% in Slovaks and French (Loogväli et al.2004). At the same time its subcluster, H5a, which represented 10% of hg H mtDNAs in the Balkans, is present in the Caucasus and the Near Eastern populations at a very low frequency.

The peopling of Europe by AMH probably started more than 40,000 YBP (Mellars 2006),with the first evidence in the Lower Danube Basin (Churchill and Smith 2000, Conard andBolus 2003), suggesting the Near East - Anatolia as a likely route for these pioneer hunter-gatherers to Europe. The present-day variation of hg H suggests that this mtDNA clade aroseoutside Europe before the LGM.

It is likely that the subclades of hg H that are common today, some of which beingassociated with post-LGM re-occupation, were already frequent before the LGM, decreasingthe probability of their extinction.

A global climate model, based on solar output, has revealed that a significant warming of Earth climate occurred between 33,000 to 26,000 YBP (Perry and Hsu 2000). Independently, more humid conditions in the Near East and Greece before the LGM (31,000-25,000 YBP) have been deduced from geological and pollen data analysis. These estimates overlap with the coalescence dates calculated here for the oldest subclades of hg H. We assume, therefore, that the first expansion wave of hg H may have taken place during this favorable timeframe, probably in the northern part of the Near East and the southern Caucasus, where the oldest clades of hg H appear to be more diverse until now. It has been shown that the Upper Paleolithic archaeological culture was present in the South Caucasus more than 30,000 YBP, well before the LGM (Adler et al. 2006), giving support for our estimates of past population expansions in this region.

... it appears that after the initial migration of the carriers of hg H into Europe, presumably already before or during the Gravettian period, there was little subsequent admixture of the West Asian and European hg H lineages.

As for Europe, a number of frequency/diversity clines in the Near East and the Caucasuscould be associated with the postglacial population expansion phase. This can be partiallyascribed, as in Europe, to the (re)colonization of areas which were unsuitable for humanoccupation during the LGM due to aridity and lower temperatures.
Катерина
Глушак (Брянськ.) Ковальов Федосенко mt H5a (Могилевськ.)
Оглотков I2a2b (Горбат. п. НГГ) Алькін Душин Жарков Кульдішов mt U5a1 Баландін (Симб. губ.)
Клишкін R1a1a Власенко Сакунов Кучерявенко (Глухів)
Кириченко Бондаренко Білоус Страшний mt T2a1 (Новомоск. Дніпроп.)
#генеалогия #генеалогія #пошукпредків #поискпредков #ahnenforschung #ukrainianancestry #родовід #родословная


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